In Vermont, the affordable housing review process can take up to a decade, involving communities and developers in lengthy and expensive legal battles that can cause damage to all those involved. The authors of this report have been tasked with researching methods of streamlining the affordable housing review process so that, no matter what the outcome of a given case, a decision is rendered quickly and effectively. This report investigates the affordable housing review process in Vermont, alternative processes employed by other states, and the possible policies that Vermont may adopt based on these state case studies. The following analysis examines four state case studies— Massachusetts, Illinois, Connecticut, and Rhode Island—utilizing existing literature and personal interviews. The authors have spoken with non-profit organization leaders, policy makers, academics and community members who are all stakeholders in their states’ affordable housing review processes. From this research, one finding comes through the most clearly: whether an individual is seek ing to block or build an affordable housing project, a long, drawn-out review process harms the people on both sides and leaves communities in limbo. Increasing the efficiency of dispute resolution is therefore essential to all stakeholders.